CHAPTER 11 APPLICATIONS OF ORE MICROSCOPY IN MINERAL TECHNOLOGY 11.1 INTRODUCTION The extraction ofspecific valuable minerals from their naturally occurring ores is variously termed quot;ore dressing,quot; quot;mineral dressing,quot; and quot;mineral beneficiation.quot; For most metalliferous ores produced by mining operations,
Recognizing a mineral as a member of the chlorite group is usually easy. However, placing a specific name on it can be difficult. Detailed optical, chemical, or x ray analysis is usually required for positive identification. The name quot;chloritequot; is often used in classrooms and the field because the minerals are difficult or impossible to identify.
43 Copper sulfate is produced commercially by reacting various copper minerals and/or metal with sulfuric 44 acid. In nature, the anhydrous form occurs as a rare mineral known as chalcocyanite. The hydrated copper 45 sulfate occurs as chalcanthite (pentahydrate) mineral. The production of copper sulfate, using copper ore as
May 03, 20170183;32;Test for Cations and Anions in Aqueous Solutions Test for anions in aqueous solutions When a salt is dissolved in water, the free anion will be present in the aqueous solution. Tests can then be carried out to identify the anion. The following shows the various confirmatory tests for carbonate ion, chloride ion, sulphate
Mineral Identification Basics PHYSICAL PROPERTIES COLOR The COLOR of a mineral is usually the first thing that a person notices when observing a mineral. However, it is normally NOT the best physical property to begin the mineral identification process. Following are some examples of color variation within mineral species
Earth Resources Mineral Identification Introduction Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral? a copper coin is a 3 189;, a steel nail is about a 5 5 189;, and glass is about a 5 189; 6. You might also be provided with a weak hydrochloric acid solution,
Copper Group. Copper was one of the first metals to be worked into implements and the first metal to be smelted from ores. Its excellent ductility and high conductivity assure its use in modern society.
The interlocking Copper and Silver masses that are commonly found in the Keweenaw Peninsula are known as quot;Halfbreedsquot;. Some Copper on the mineral market has been cleaned and shined using various solvents. These forms are Copper can easily be spotted as their copper red color is almost artificial looking in its fleshy hue.
Iron may be dissolved by some of the acidic fixatives and decalcification solutions; however iron is still demonstrable on specimens fixed overnight in Zenker solution containing 3% acetic acid. Both fixation and decalcification are accomplished, and the iron is preserved.
Ruby amp; Sapphire These precious gemstones are the same mineral, corundum. When found as red corundum, it is called ruby. Every other color, including blue, is called sapphire. It is the hardest mineral on Earth, second to diamond. Ruby is the birthstone for July and Sapphire is
In our definition of a mineral we said that a mineral has a definite, but not necessarily fixed chemical composition. Here we explore the quot;not necessarily fixedquot; portion of the definition. Chemical compositional variation in minerals is referred to solid solution. Although most of us think of solutions as a liquid containing dissolved ions
Copper(II) sulfate, also known as copper sulphate, are the inorganic compounds with the chemical formula Cu SO 4 (H 2 O) x, where x can range from 0 to 5.The pentahydrate (x = 5) is the most common form. Older names for this compound include blue vitriol, bluestone, vitriol of copper, and Roman vitriol.
Chalcopyrite is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. It has the chemical formula CuFeS2. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black. On exposure to air, chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides, hydroxides and sulfates. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite, chalcocite, covellite,
Most chlorite minerals are green in color, have a foliated appearance, perfect cleavage, and an oily to soapy feel. They are found in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Chlorite minerals are found in rocks altered during deep burial, plate collisions, hydrothermal activity, or contact metamorphism.
An inclusion is any material that is trapped inside a mineral during its formation. In gemology, an inclusion is a characteristic enclosed within a gemstone, or reaching its surface from the interior. Inclusions are usually other minerals or rocks, but may also be water, gas or petroleum. Liquid or vapor inclusions are known as fluid inclusions.
solutions containing hydrogen ions, metal ions, and sulfate; these solutions must be at least partially neutralized if the metals of economic significance are to be redeposited. One of the most important factors influencing the generation of the acid sulfate bearing solutions is the ratio of reduced sulfur to metal in sulde minerals before oxidation.
After sulfuric acid was added to the beaker, copper was found as copper ions with a 2+ charge instead of the previous copper(ii) oxide form. 6. In the final step of the lab when the copper precipitate was washed, zinc ions were removed. The previous reaction that took place involved aqueous copper(ii) sulfate and solid zinc.
Copper Solutions of cupric compounds, acidified with hydrochloric acid, deposit a red film of metallic copper upon a bright, untarnished surface of metallic iron. An excess of 6 N ammonium hydroxide, added to a solution of a cupric salt, produces first a bluish precipitate and then a deep blue colored solution.
Geology 2 Lab 1 Mineral Identification KEY The Purpose of this lab is to practice identifying minerals by systematically observing their physical properties. We will emphasize your ability to observe and test for these properties over your ability to merely name the mineral, although that is the overall goal.
Copper is a malleable, ductile reddish metal, and is one of only two strongly colored metals (gold being the other). Copper is a stable metal largely unaffected by water and air, although carbon dioxide will react with the surface of pure copper to form greenish copper carbonate.
Identification and Diagnostics Copper may easily be distinguished from all other substances except gold and a few alloys by its malleability and color. Dissolves readily in nitric acid, with the evolution of brownish red fumes of nitrous oxide gas. The solution is colored a deep blue on addition of ammonium hydroxide The mineral occurs
hydroxyoxime is formed in organic phase. Copper(II) extraction from ammonia solution with acidic extractant HA is described as 2 Cu(NH ) 2HA CuA 2NH 2NH3 4(aq) ( ) 2(o) 4(aq) 3(aq)o +++= + + (2) where aq and o subscripts denote the aqueous and organic phases, respectively. Extraction of metals from ammonia solutions seems to be more complicated
Geology Laboratory Mineral Properties Revised on 8/27/2012 Page 3 of 13 Vitreous luster is like that of glass, shiny and translucent to transparent. Remember that glass can be almost any color, including black, so don't be fooled by the color. Also, a dark piece of glass may appear to be opaque if
However, the identification of minerals providing the bulk of Cu in the solution is not an easily quantified variable for mixed ores on the leach pad scale. For instance, general models for supergene enrichment demonstrate that chalcocite (Cu 2 S) dominates the mineralogy at the top of the enrichment profile whereas covellite (CuS) is found at greater proportions at the base of the blanket.
Chapter 6 Copper Production Technology The last boomin technological innovation for the copper industry occurred in the first two dec ades of this century, whenopen pit mining, flo tation concentration,and the reverberatory
The paragenesis of copper oxide mineral formation reflects local, dynamic changes in supergene solution identification and mapping of copper oxides is useful in interpreting the of an oxide zone. Furthermore, practical application of oxide zone geochemistry is significant in the recognition and solution of problems associated with
X Ray Powder Diffraction XRD provides the researcher with a fast and reliable tool for routine mineral identification. XRD is particularly useful for identifying fine grained minerals and mixtures or intergrowths of minerals, which may not lend themselves to analysis by other techniques. Elements that go into solution may form mineral
Oct 09, 20160183;32;Minerals exhibit certain diagnostic properties, called physical properties, which can be tested and observed, thereby leading to the correct identification of the mineral. Many (but not all) of these properties are unique to a given mineral. One of the keys to identifying minerals is observing a combination of physical properties displayed by a mineral.
Chalcanthite does have useful purposes or at least solutions of copper sulfate do. It is a wonderful tool to use to teach children how some crystals form. In a class room or at home with adult supervision, chalcanthite crystals can form easily over a few days time from a warm solution
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